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SPECIAL TOPICS

Obesity

Published: April 2010

The baseline time span for this database is (publication years) 1999-December 31, 2009 from the sixth bimonthly update (an 11-year period). The resulting database contained 78,904 (10 years) and 23,666 (2 years) papers; 172,795 authors; 168 nations; 4,043 journals; and 30,223 institutions. See additional information below in the overview & methodology sections.

Top 20 Papers

  10-year period
  2-year period

Top 20 Overall

  Authors
  Institutions
  Journals
  Nations

Research Front Map

  GUT MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND OBESITY

Time Series

  1- & 5-year periods

Field Distribution

Interviews

  Interviews, first-person essays, and profiles about people in a wide variety of fields which pertain to this special topic of Obesity.
   

OVERVIEW

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "American society has become 'obesogenic,' characterized by environments that promote increased food intake, nonhealthful foods, and physical inactivity."1 Being overweight or obese means that a person is carrying a greater weight than is considered healthy for their height, leaving them at greater risk for a host of other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, stroke, and respiratory problems. Obesity also carries a significant healthcare price tag.

The CDC estimated that one-third of US adults in 2007-2008 were obese. The World Health Organization also acknowledges that obesity is a growing international problem. WHO estimated that in 2005, 1.6 billion adults (people over the age of 15 years) were overweight, and 400 million were obese globally. By the year 2015, WHO estimates that 2.3 billion adults will be overweight, and 700 million will be obese. In addition, in 2005, WHO estimated that there were at least 20 million children under the age of five years around the world who were overweight.2

Assess Your Weight - The first step is to determine whether or not your current weight is healthy. BMI – Body Mass Index is one way to measure your weight. Image from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Overweight and Obesity."
 
Assess Your Weight - The first step is to determine whether or not your current weight is healthy. BMI – Body Mass Index is one way to measure your weight. Image from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Overweight and Obesity."

This month, Special Topics looks at the literature on obesity over the past decade and over the past two years. To construct the initial data pool, the string "obesity" OR "obese" OR "overweight" was employed to search titles, abstracts, and keywords of original articles, reviews, and proceedings papers published between January 1, 1999 and October 31, 2009. To make the paper lists more on-target to the topic, we restricted to the title keyword "obes*."

When we last visited the topic of obesity, in December of 2001, the prevalent themes among the most-cited papers for 1991-2000 included the search for an obesity gene, the physiological action of leptin in humans, the link between obesity and insulin resistance, and the prevalence of obesity in different population groups, particularly children and adolescents. Some of these topics are still relevant in the current literature.

The bulk of papers in the 10-year period relate to prevalence and trends of obesity in adults or children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the US, the disease burden of obesity and overweight, and the need to establish a standard definition for childhood overweight and obesity worldwide.

Other topics covered on the 10-year list include the relationship between adiponectin, insulin resistance, and obesity; the link between obesity and diabetes via the protein resistin; the role of circulating ghrelin levels in obesity; C-reactive proteins and the potential role for cytokines originating from adipose; macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue; and the role of chronic inflammation in fat tissue in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance.

Gene studies dominate the two-year list, and include such topics as variants near MC4R associated with fat mass, weight, and obesity risk; genetics variants in particular Asian populations, including the Chinese Han population; and the strength of genetics on childhood adiposity.

The two-year list also covers topics related to gut microbiota in obesity in humans and in mice; the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic; using the Nurses' Health Study to examine abdominal obesity and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in women in a 16-year follow-up study; pharmacological achievement of weight loss with rimonabant or exenatide; and the implications of T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue.

Adipocyte dysfunction, epidemiology problems, adipokines, the link between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the relationship between the brain, appetite, and obesity are reviewed.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Overweight and Obesity
  2. The World Health Organization, Obesity and Overweight

Methodology: The baseline time span for this database is (publication years) 1999-December 31, 2009 from the sixth bimonthly update (an 11-year period). The resulting database contained 78,904 (10 years) and 23,666 (2 years) papers; 172,795 authors; 168 nations; 4,043 journals; and 30,223 institutions.

Rankings: Once the database was in place, it was used to generate list of authors, journals, institutions, and nations. Rankings for author, journal, institution, and country are listed in three ways: according to total cites, total papers, and total cites/paper*. The paper thresholds and corresponding percentages used to determine scientist, institution, country, and journal rankings according to total cites/paper, and total papers respectively are as follows:

Entity Authors Institutions Nations Journals
Thresholds 21 118 8 5*
Percentage: 1% 1% 50% 50%
*Unless otherwise specified, all rankings have a 5 paper threshold for all measures.

        



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