Archive ScienceWatch



April 2008

From the database of Essential Science IndicatorsSM, this list of Emerging Research Fronts has been generated by a comparison of the data sets for the current period of January 2002-December 31, 2007, and the previous period of November 2001-October 31, 2007 (sliding 6-year period). Of the 6,757 Research Fronts in the January 2002-December 31, 2007 file, a total of 2,417 (35%) were new. The following Research Fronts were selected for mapping from the list of Emerging Research Fronts from this period:

View a list of all Emerging Research Front Maps within

The author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work. This symbol indicates that the author(s) of the comments below have also sent along accompanying images/descriptions of their work.

Field Research Front Name Description
WrolstadThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY; PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS; RUBUS SPECIES (FAMILY ROSACEAE) There is intense interest in the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of fruits and vegetables because of their possible health benefits.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Ron Wrolstad
Biology &
BrandENHANCING MITOCHONDRIAL REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION; SUPEROXIDE ACTIVATES MITOCHONDRIAL UNCOUPLING PROTEINS Superoxide activates uncoupling proteins and their putative roles in energy dissipation, obesity and regulation of insulin secretion and regulation of mitochondrial radical production, aging, and degenerative diseases.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Martin Brand
Chemistry KotovZINC OXIDE HEXAGONAL NANORINGS; ZNO NANOCRYSTALS; ZNO NANORODS; SINGLE-CRYSTAL HEXAGONAL DISKS Demonstration of the collective behavior of nanoparticles as well as a convenient, simple technique for production of one-dimensional semiconductor colloids suitable for subsequent processing into quantum-confined superstructures, materials, and devices.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Nicholas A. Kotov
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS; UNITED STATES; LIFETIME RISK Context Modifiable behavioral risk factors are leading causes of mortality in the United States, providing insights into missed prevention opportunities.
with corresponding map: " HAPLOTYPE TAG SNPS"
HAPLOTYPE TAG SNPS; ASSOCIATION ANALYSES USING LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM; HUMAN GENOME; HAPLOTYPE BLOCKS Results provide a foundation for the construction of a haplotype map of the human genome, facilitating comprehensive genetic association studies of human disease.
Economics &
TRIAL-BASED COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS; COST-EFFECTIVENESS ACCEPTABILITY CURVES; HEALTH CARE COST-EFFECTIVENESS The relationship between cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and decision-making in health care and the introduction of the concept of the cost-effectiveness frontier.
Engineering SHOTGUN TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS; ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS; MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONISATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY Mechanisms involved in the formation of various product ions following collisional activation of molecular ion species generated by electrospray ionization of the common glycerophospholipids.
DNA REPAIR GENES USING CYTOGENETIC CHALLENGE ASSAYS; CANCER RISK; BLADDER CANCER; NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER; BASE EXCISION REPAIR PATHWAY Common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may alter protein function and an individual's capacity to repair damaged DNA; deficits in repair capacity may lead to genetic instability and carcinogenesis.
Geosciences DubovikThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.MODIS AEROSOL ALGORITHM; AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH; KEY AEROSOL TYPES; TERRA MODIS LAND PRODUCTS A summary of multi-year aerosol observations—the property which drives the impact of aerosol on the radiative balance of the atmosphere.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Oleg Dubovik
Immunology MantovaniTUMOR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES (DEFECTIVE NF-KAPPA B); DISTINCT M2 POLARISED POPULATION; TUMOUR PROGRESSION; MACROPHAGE POLARIZATION A current understanding of the diversity of macrophage activation in terms of polarization of cells with different functional properties, including a review of tumor-associated macrophages and the relationship of inflammation and cancer.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Alberto Mantovani
FornesNYLON 6/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING COMPOSITE THEORIES; POLYMER/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES; POLYETHYLENE-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES Nanocomposites based on nylon 6 exhibit higher extents of platelet exfoliation and better mechanical properties than nanocomposites formed from low molecular grade polyamide, a trend attributed to the higher melt viscosity and higher shear stresses generated during melt processing.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Timothy D. Fornes & Don Paul
Mathematics SUMMARIZED DOSE-RESPONSE DATA; GENERALIZED LEAST SQUARES; QUANTIFYING HETEROGENEITY; TREND ESTIMATION; MEASURING INCONSISTENCY Systematic reviews and meta-analyses can provide convincing and reliable evidence relevant to many aspects of medicine and healthcare.
Microbiology KaplanThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE; MACROCYCLIC LACTONE RESISTANCE; DRUG RESISTANCE; BENZIMIDAZOLE RESISTANCE Drug resistance in nematode parasites of grazing livestock is one of the most significant issues facing animal production systems across much of the world.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Ray M. Kaplan
Molecular Biology
& Genetics
BaylinDNA METHYLATION MARKERS; HUMAN CANCER CELLS; TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE; HISTONE MODIFICATIONS Evidence shows that abnormal silencing of genes plays a surprisingly major role in the biology of human cancer—from initiation through progression.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Stephen A. Baylin & Peter A. Jones
Multidisciplinary DNA REPAIR GLYCOSYLASES; REPAIR ENZYME INTERROGATING UNDAMAGED DNA ELUCIDATES RECOGNITION; BASE EXCISION REPAIR ENZYMES; EXTENDED WEAK BONDING INTERACTIONS The importance of DNA glycosylases in biology and medicine continues to expand as our understanding of their functions increases.
Neuroscience &
VOMERONASAL SYSTEM PHEROMONE SIGNALS; VOMERONASAL ORGAN; CHEMOSENSORY SIGNALS The mouse vomeronasal organ is thought to mediate social behaviors and neuroendocrine changes elicited by pheromonal cues.
Pharmacology &
KatoThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR-MEDIATED INDUCTION; ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALLING; ACTIVATED DIOXIN RECEPTOR Environmental contaminants affect a wide variety of biological events in many species, for example, dioxins that exert adverse estrogen-related effects.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Shigeaki Kato
with corresponding map: " THIN-FILM ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS"
EFFICIENT BULK HETEROJUNCTION PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS; ORGANIC SMALL MOLECULE SOLAR CELLS; EFFICIENT THIN-FILM ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS; 2% EFFICIENT ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS A consideration of the physics underlying the operation of single and multiple heterojunction, vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on small molecular weight thin films.
Plant &
Animal Science
ECOLOGY; STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS TESTING; INFORMATION THEORY; USING INFORMATION-THEORETIC METHODS Model selection is now being implemented by researchers in ecology and evolution as a valuable alternative to traditional null hypothesis testing, especially when more than one hypothesis is plausible.
CORONARY HEART DISEASE; PHYSICAL HEALTH; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE; SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS Childhood family environments represent vital links for understanding mental and physical health across the life span.
Social Sciences,
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; UNINTENDED PREGNANCY; INCREASED ACCESS Three regimens studied are very efficacious for emergency contraception and prevent a high proportion of pregnancies if taken within five days of unprotected coitus.
DARK MATTER HALOES; EXCURSION SET MODEL; HUBBLE VOLUME SIMULATIONS; SKY SURVEY POPULATIONS Data from a number of N-body simulations is combined to predict the abundance of dark haloes in cold dark matter universes over more than four orders of magnitude in mass.


Emerging Research Fronts : 2008 : April 2008