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EMERGING RESEARCH FRONTS - 2008

February 2008

From the database of Essential Science IndicatorsSM, this list of Emerging Research Fronts has been generated by a comparison of the data sets for the current period of November 2001-October 31, 2007, and the previous period of September 2001-August 31, 2007 (sliding 6-year period). Of the 5,589 Research Fronts in the November 2001-October 31, 2007 file, a total of 881 (16%) were new. The following Research Fronts were selected for mapping from the list of Emerging Research Fronts from this period:

This symbol indicates that the author(s) of the comments below have also sent along accompanying images/descriptions of their work.

View a list of all previous Emerging Research Front Maps.

Field Research Front Name Description
Agricultural
Sciences
ENVIRONMENTAL SCRUTINY USING ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE; CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES Environmental Management Systems have been adapted by different agricultural industries to suit their needs and to align with other requirements such as Quality Assurance.
Biology &
Biochemistry
ESCHERICHIA COLI K-12 BIOFILMS; MATURATION; METALLOCENTER ASSEMBLY; HYDROGENASE ENZYMES; TEMPORAL GENE-EXPRESSION Recent developments in the analysis of the maturation of [FeFe]- and [NiFe]- hydrogenases have revealed a remarkably complex pattern of mostly novel biochemical reactions.
Chemistry POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES; PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES (PEMS); ALTERNATIVE POLYMER SYSTEMS; FUEL CELLS Alternative polymer systems for proton exchange membranes.
Clinical
Medicine
FEATURED FRONT: with corresponding map
NOSOCOMIAL METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) INFECTION; VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS CONTROL MEASURES; INTENSIVE CARE UNITS; HOSPITAL PATIENTS COLONIZED
Research Front Map for:
NOSOCOMIAL MRSA INFECTION
Active surveillance cultures are essential to identify the reservoir for spread of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus infections and make control possible using the CDCs long-recommended contact precautions.
Computer
Science
KanehisaPROTEIN SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION USING N-TERMINAL TARGETING SEQUENCES; FUZZY K-NN METHOD; PREDICTING SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION; AMINO ACID COMPOSITION
Emerging Research Comment by:
Minoru Kanehisa
Proteins are the main players involved in various cellular functions, and subcellular location is the key information required for the understanding of such functions.
Economics &
Business
BennerPROCESS MANAGEMENT; AMBIDEXTERITY HYPOTHESIS; ORGANIZATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY
Emerging Research Comment by:
Mary J. Benner
Process management activities must be buffered from exploratory activities. Ambidextrous organizational forms provide the complex contexts for these inconsistent activities to coexist.
Engineering DETERMINISTIC MINE BURIAL PREDICTION SYSTEM; SEA MINE BURIAL PREDICTION; SCOUR BURIAL USING OPERATIONAL DATA SETS; MINE-IMPACT BURIAL MODEL (IMPACT35) VERIFICATION A simple parameterized model for wave-induced burial of mine-like cylinders as a function of grain-size, time-varying, wave orbital velocity and mine diameter was implemented and assessed against results from inert instrumented mines.
Environment/
Ecology
PURIFIED CARBON NANOTUBES; SURFACE OXIDIZED CARBON NANOTUBES; CARBON NANOMATERIALS; ADSORPTION Experimental results suggest that cadmium(II) adsorption capacities for three kinds of oxidized carbon nanotubes increase due to the functional groups introduced by oxidation compared with the as-grown carbon nanotubes.
Geosciences ZhuZIRCON SHRIMP CHRONOLOGY; NORTHWEST CHINA; XINJIANG
Emerging Research Comment by:
Yong-Feng Zhu
Volcanic rocks occurring in different regions might represent magma eruption in different time periods. The zircon Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe dating indicates that the ages of the basalt varies between 334.0 Ma and 394.9 Ma.
Immunology LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; CASPASE-8 MUTATIONS LEAD; NF-KAPPA B ACTIVATION; PLEIOTROPIC DEFECTS; HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY Caspase-8 deficiency in humans is compatible with normal development and shows that caspase-8 has a postnatal role in immune activation of naive lymphocytes.
Materials
Science
FEATURED FRONT: with corresponding map
MAGNETIC VORTEX CORE REVERSAL; VORTEX CORE-DRIVEN MAGNETIZATION DYNAMICS; ULTRAFAST NANOMAGNETIC TOGGLE SWITCHING
Research Front Map for:
MAGNETIC VORTEX CORES
The size and the shape of the vortex core as well as its magnetic field dependence are governed by only two material parameters, the exchange stiffness and the saturation magnetization that determines the stray field energy.
Mathematics SUB-THRESHOLD ENDEMIC EQUILIBRIA; REPRODUCTION NUMBERS; COMPARTMENTAL MODELS; DISEASE TRANSMISSION; EPIDEMIC MODEL A precise definition of the basic reproduction number is presented for a general compartmental disease transmission model based on a system of ordinary differential equations.
Microbiology PHYLOGENETICALLY COMPLEX MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION; UNIFORM MICROBIAL COMMUNITY; MARINE SPONGES; MICROBIAL FERMENTERS A picture emerges where sponges can be viewed as highly concentrated reservoirs of so far uncultured and elusive marine microorganisms.
Molecular Biology
& Genetics
HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDAC6)-MEDIATED TUBULIN DEACETYLATION; MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED DEACETYLASE; DOMAIN-SELECTIVE SMALL-MOLECULE INHIBITOR Results show that histone deacetylase 6 is the tubulin deacetylase, and provide evidence that reversible acetylation regulates important biological processes beyond histone metabolism and gene transcription.
Multidisciplinary MICRORNA-155 REGULATES GERMINAL CENTER RESPONSE; MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE; NORMAL IMMUNE FUNCTION Research suggests that bic/microRNA-155 plays a key role in the homeostasis and function of the immune system.
Neuroscience &
Behavior
TrappMULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; PREMYELINATING OLIGODENDROCYTES; CHRONIC LESIONS; REMYELINATION
Emerging Research Comment by:
Bruce D. Trapp
Understanding the cellular interactions between premyelinating oligodendrocytes, axons, and the microenvironment of lesions of multiple sclerosis may lead to effective strategies for enhancing remyelination.
Pharmacology &
Toxicology
SELECTIVE GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR AGONIST; SIDE EFFECTS; THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS; GLUCOCORTICOIDS The differential molecular regulation of the major anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids and their side effects is the basis for the current drug-finding programs aimed at the development of dissociated glucocorticoid receptor ligands.
Physics YuENVIRONMENT-INDUCED SUDDEN DEATH; ENTANGLEMENT; QUANTUM OPEN SYSTEM THEORY; CLASSICAL NOISE EFFECTS; TWO JAYNES-CUMMINGS ATOMS
Emerging Research Comment by:
Ting Yu & Joseph Eberly
Under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits become completely disentangled in a finite-time, and in a specific example the time is given by ln((2+root2)/2) times the usual spontaneous lifetime.
Plant &
Animal Science
PLANT METABOLIC NETWORKS; ELEMENTARY METABOLITE UNITS (EMU); METABOLIC FLUX CHANGES; MODELING ISOTOPIC DISTRIBUTIONS; INTRACELLULAR AMINO ACIDS Efficient storage of carbon in seeds is crucial to plant fitness and to agricultural productivity. Oil is a major reserve material in most seeds, and these oils provide the largest source of renewable reduced carbon chains available from nature.
Psychiatry/
Psychology
CHRONIC TIC DISORDERS WITH/WITHOUT ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER; CO-EXISTING ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Emerging Research Comment by:
Mary M. Robertson
Tourette's Syndrome is now recognized to be a common childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is also a common childhood disorder. There are many cases in which the two disorders are comorbid.
Social Sciences,
general
PRESCRIPTION-DRUG UTILIZATION; MEDICAL UTILIZATION; THREE-TIER PRESCRIPTION COPAY; INCENTIVE-BASED FORMULARIES Many employers have adopted incentive-based formularies in an attempt to control prescription-drug costs. Changes in copayments can substantially alter out-of-pocket spending by enrollees, continuation of the use of medications and the quality of care.
Space
Science
HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS 2 DEG(2) COSMOS FIELD SPITZER LEGACY SURVEY; LARGE VLT/VIMOS REDSHIFT SURVEY; COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY (COSMOS) The Cosmic Evolution Survey is designed to probe the correlated evolution of galaxies, star formation, active galactic nuclei, and dark matter with large-scale structure over the redshift range z > 0.5-6.
2001-2007_5


Emerging Research Fronts : 2008 : February 2008