Archive ScienceWatch



April 2009

From the database of Essential Science IndicatorsSM, this list of Emerging Research Fronts has been generated by a comparison of the data sets for the current period of January 2003-December 31, 2008, and the previous period of November 2002-October 31, 2008 (sliding 6-year period). Of the 6,956 Research Fronts in the January 2003-December 31, 2008 file, a total of 687 (11%) were new.

View a list of just Emerging Research Front Maps -or- a Site-Wide list of all Research Front Maps within (listed by field).

The author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work. This symbol indicates that the author(s) of the comments below have also sent along accompanying images/descriptions of their work.


Research Front Name


SUSTAINABLE WINTER WHEAT; SOIL RESILIENCE; SOIL WATER REGIME; SUSTAINABLE SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS Nitrogen balances and the behavior of surplus nitrogen in the soil-plant system.
Biology &
EvansThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.GLUCOSE TOXICITY; OXIDATIVE STRESS-ACTIVATED SIGNALING PATHWAY MEDIATORS; TYPE 2 DIABETES; PANCREATIC ISLET BETA CELLS The pathogenic effect of high glucose is mediated by the increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and subsequent oxidative stress.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Joseph L. Evans
Chemistry IRON-CATALYZED ASYMMETRIC SULFIDE OXIDATION; VANADIUM-CATALYZED ASYMMETRIC OXIDATIONS; CHIRAL SULFOXIDES Chiral sulfoxides are often employed in synthetic organic chemistry because of the chiral control they impart on the formation of asymmetric carbon-carbon bonds.
HUMAN CANCER GENES; CENSUS; PATHWAYS; CONTROL Many genes responsible for the genesis of various cancers have been discovered, their mutations precisely identified, and the pathways through which they act characterized.
UCSC GENOME BROWSER DATABASE; UCSC KNOWN GENES; ENSEMBL 2006 The Ensembl project provides a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences.
Economics &
OpricovicGAMES THEORY NEW LOGARITHMIC NORMALIZATION METHOD; MULTI-ATTRIBUTE CONTRACTORS RANKING METHOD; COPRAS METHOD; ROAD DESIGN SOLUTIONS Multiple criteria decision making methods are based on an aggregating function which originated in the compromise programming method.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Serafim Opricovic & Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng
Engineering HoltzThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.INDUCTION MACHINE CONDITION MONITORING USING NEURAL NETWORK MODELING; THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR STATOR FAULT; VOLTAGE-FED PWM INVERTER INDUCTION MOTOR Using signal flow graphs of complex space vector quantities to provide a description of the systems in sensorless control of induction motors.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Joachim Holtz
URINARY TRIVALENT METHYLATED ARSENIC SPECIES; HUMAN ARSENIC METHYLTRANSFERASE CYT19; ARSENIC BIOTRANSFORMATION; ARSENIC TOXICOLOGY There are marked differences in the metabolism of arsenic between mammalian species, population groups, and individuals.
Geosciences SmithPULSED POSITIVE STREAMERS; REMOTELY SENSED MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE NO2; ADAPTIVE GRID REFINEMENT STRATEGY; TERRESTRIAL GAMMA-RAY FLASHES Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes from Earth's upper atmosphere have been detected with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite.
Emerging Research Comment by:
David M. Smith
Immunology REGULATION; T CELL RESPONSES; INNATE RESISTANCE; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY; IL-12 FAMILY The role of the cytokine Interleukin-12 and of other members of the family of heterodimeric cytokines in innate resistance and adaptive immunity.
Fast Breaking Paper Comment by:
Giorgio Trinchieri
(Apr. 2004)
OzinThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.WAFER-SIZE COLLOIDAL CRYSTALS; COLLOIDAL CRYSTAL FILMS; MULTICRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS; COLLOID-BASED ANTIREFLECTIVE COATINGS A new strategy for making silica colloidal crystal films with a sufficiently high level of structural perfection and optical quality to make it competitive with photonic crystal optical components.
Emerging Research Comment by: Geoffrey Alan Ozin
Mathematics NORMAL-DISPERSION FEMTOSECOND FIBER LASERS; MODE-LOCKED SOLITON LASERS; SELF-SIMILAR EVOLUTION; PARABOLIC PULSES A new type of pulse shaping in mode-locked lasers, in contrast to the well-known static and breathing pulse evolutions.
Microbiology PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAIN PA14 TRANSPOSON INSERTION MUTANTS; COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPOSON MUTANT LIBRARY Screening for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected.
Molecular Biology
& Genetics
CELL REGULATORY SYSTEMS; COMPLEX CELLULAR SYSTEMS; PROTEIN INTERACTION DOMAINS; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION Regulation of many different cellular processes requires the use of protein interaction domains to direct the association of polypeptides with one another and with phospholipids, small molecules, or nucleic acids.
Multidisciplinary INFLUENZA EVOLUTION ECOLOGICAL-IMMUNOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS; INFLUENZA VIRUS; GENETIC EVOLUTION; EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS The Evolutionary Infectivity Profile captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission.
Neuroscience &
HIPPOCAMPUS COGNITIVE PROCESSES-NEURAL REPRESENTATIONS UNDERLYING DECLARATIVE MEMORY; MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE The medial temporal lobe includes a system of anatomically related structures that are essential for declarative memory.
Pharmacology &
NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB; NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA-B; ENEMY WITHIN Suppression of NF-kappaB activation should be effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
Physics WolfPARTIALLY COHERENT HERMITE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS; STOCHASTIC ANISOTROPIC ELECTROMAGNETIC BEAMS; DARK HOLLOW BEAMS A synthesis of two branches of optics, known as the theory of coherence and the theory of polarization of light.
Emerging Research Comment by:
Emil Wolf
Plant &
Animal Science
FUNGAL SECONDARY METABOLISM BIOCHEMISTRY; CLUSTERED PATHWAY GENES; AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS; FILAMENTOUS FUNGI Aflatoxin biosynthesis has been proposed to involve at least 23 enzymatic reactions.
PRENATAL CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTATION ATTENUATES NEUROPATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE; ADULT RAT HIPPOCAMPUS; INTERVAL TIMING It is proposed that the brain represents time in a distributed manner and tells the time by detecting the coincidental activation of different neural populations.
Social Sciences,
HUMAN CHRONOBIOLOGY RESEARCH; COMPOSITE SCALE; PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES; ETHICS The ethical policies, standards and procedures for chronobiology involving human and animal biological rhythm research.
GALAXY MERGING TIME-SCALES; GALAXY GROWTH; LAMBDA CDM COSMOLOGY; CONCORDANCE ACDM COSMOLOGY Although the evidence for a cold dark matter dominated universe in which structure grows hierarchically is overwhelming, the role of mergers in galaxy assembly and star formation remains unclear.


Emerging Research Fronts : 2009 : April 2009 - Emerging Research Fronts