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 ScienceWatch

FAST MOVING FRONTS - 2009

November 2009  
 

From the database of Essential Science IndicatorsSM, this list of Fast Moving Fronts has been generated by a comparison of the data sets for the current period of July 2003-June 30, 2009, and the previous period of May 2003-April 30, 2009 (sliding 6-year period).

This symbol indicates that the author(s) of the comments below have also sent along accompanying images/descriptions of their work.

View a list of only Fast Moving Front Maps, or all Research Front Maps (site-wide)

Field Research Front Name Description
Agricultural
Sciences
Maureen StoreyFAVORABLE SERUM LDL CHOLESTEROL; LOW SERUM HDL CHOLESTEROL; FRUCTOSE-SWEETENED BEVERAGES; LONG TERM CONSUMPTION

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Maureen Storey

Research recommendations to improve our understanding of the association of high fructose corn syrup and weight gain.
Biology &
Biochemistry
Jan NedergaardThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.COLD-ACTIVATED BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE; FUNCTIONAL BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE; ADULT HUMANS
Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Jan Nedergaard
The development of brown adipose tissue was important for the evolutionary success of mammals.
Chemistry
Research Front Map:
"BIOMASS PRETREATMENT AND LOW-COST CELLULOSIC ETHANOL"
LEADING BIOMASS PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES; UNLOCKING LOW-COST CELLULOSIC ETHANOL; ACID-BASED HYDROLYSIS PROCESSES

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Michael R. Ladisch
(May 2009)

Cellulosic plant material represents an untapped source of fermentable sugars with significant industrial application.
Clinical
Medicine
REAL-TIME CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING; REAL-TIME CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE SENSOR; BLOOD GLUCOSE MONITORING Continuously measured glucose levels can significantly improve glycemic excursions by reducing exposure to hyperglycemia without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.
Computer
Science
ROBOTICALLY ASSISTED LAPAROSCOPIC HYSTERECTOMY; ROBOTIC RADICAL HYSTERECTOMY; TOTAL LAPAROSCOPIC RADICAL HYSTERECTOMY CASES Laparoscopy and robotics are preferable to laparotomy for patients requiring radical hysterectomy.
Economics &
Business
David L. CollinsonMANAGING IDENTITY; IDENTITY WORK; OPEN SOCIETY; LIBERAL WORKPLACES

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
David L. Collinson

An examination of the analytical importance of insecurity for understanding the subjective power relations and survival strategies within organizations.
Engineering Ronald L. KluehThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.LOW ACTIVATION MARTENSITIC STEEL; REDUCED ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL DEVELOPMENT; 8CR TEMPERED MARTENSITIC STEELS

Fast Moving Front Comment by: Ronald L. Klueh

Oxide dispersion-strengthened steels are being developed and investigated for nuclear fission and nuclear fusion applications.
Environment/
Ecology
Andrew A. MehargThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.RICE GRAIN ARSENIC; ARSENIC SPECIATION; ELEVATED ARSENIC; INORGANIC ARSENIC CONTENT

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Andrew A. Meharg

Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets.
Geosciences Alex GuentherGLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS ESTIMATED USING MEGAN; TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM ISOPRENE EMISSIONS; ISOPRENE PHOTOOXIDATION

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Alex Guenther

The sensitivity of isoprene emissions to earth system changes, such as climate and land-use, demonstrates the potential for large future changes in emissions.
Immunology Roza I. NurievaT FOLLICULAR HELPER (T-FH) CELLS; T FOLLICULAR HELPER CELLS DIFFERENTIATE; CYTOKINE-SECRETING FOLLICULAR T CELLS; IL-4-PRODUCING CD4(+) T CELLS

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Roza I. Nurieva & Chen Dong

Follicular helper T cells have been found to be localized in germinal centers and are specialized in providing help for beta cells.
Materials
Science
Chad A. MirkinFUNCTIONAL NANOSCALE COORDINATION POLYMERS; NANOSCALE METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS; VALENCE-TAUTOMERIC METAL-ORGANIC NANOPARTICLES

Fast Moving Front by: Chad A. Mirkin
 (Commentary added in Mar. 2010 for Nov. 2009 entry.)

Micrometer- and nanometre- sized particles play important roles in many applications, including catalysis, optics, biosensing and data storage.
Mathematics ROBUST LINEAR MATRIX INEQUALITY PROBLEM RELAXATIONS EXACTNESS VERIFICATIONS; UNCERTAIN LINEAR SYSTEMS; ROBUST SEMI-DEFINITE PROGRAMS Robust H-2 and H-infinity filtering problems for linear discrete-time systems with polytopic parameter uncertainty.
Microbiology INTERFERON-INDUCIBLE ANTIVIRAL EFFECTORS; INTERFERON ANTIVIRAL RESPONSE; 5 '-OLIGOADENYLATE SYNTHETASE The interferon system is an extremely powerful antiviral response that is capable of controlling virus infections in the absence of adaptive immunity.
Molecular Biology
& Genetics
HETEROCHROMATIC GENE SILENCING; HETEROCHROMATIN ASSEMBLY; RNA INTERFERENCE GUIDES HISTONE MODIFICATION; CENTROMERIC REPEAT TRANSCRIPTION The formation of heterochromatin serves as a model for the role of histone modifications and chromatin assembly in the epigenetic control of the genome.
Multidisciplinary John D. StoreyTIME COURSE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS; ANALYZING TIME SERIES GENE EXPRESSION DATA; DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
John D. Storey

A method for analyzing time course microarray studies that can be applied to the typical types of comparisons and sampling schemes to study the dynamic regulation of gene expression.
Neuroscience &
Behavior
Christian C. RuffCONCURRENT TMS-FMRI-PSYCHOPHYSICS REVEAL HUMAN RETINOTOPIC VISUAL CORTEX FRONTAL INFLUENCES; HUMAN VISUAL CORTEX

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Christian C. Ruff

Circuits originating in the human frontal eye-field can modulate activity in the retinotopic visual cortex.
Pharmacology &
Toxicology
CARTILAGE TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS; INJECTABLE BIODEGRADABLE HYDROGEL COMPOSITES; DEGRADABLE OLIGO(POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) FUMARATE) HYDROGEL SCAFFOLDS A non-invasive means of simultaneously delivering insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 to injured cartilage tissue in a controlled manner.
Physics Oleg V.Yazyev GRAPHENE LAYERS; GRAPHENE TRANSISTORS; REVERSIBLE BASAL PLANE HYDROGENATION; LOCAL DEFECTS

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Oleg V.Yazyev

Studying from first principles the magnetism in graphene induced by single carbon atom defects.
Plant &
Animal Science
Joshua HeazlewoodARABIDOPSIS SUBCELLULAR DATABASE; ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA; PROTEIN TARGETING; DUAL TARGETING; MITOCHONDRIA

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Joshua Heazlewood

Analysis of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteome has led to the development of a publicly accessible database containing ongoing proteomics data.
Psychiatry/
Psychology
Judy IllesFUNCTIONAL MRI LIE DETECTION; FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING; NEUROETHICS CHALLENGE INFORMED; POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Judy Illes & Eric Racine

The social and ethical implications of neuroimaging research.
Social Sciences,
general
Bridget HamreThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACADEMIC SKILLS; CLASSROOM QUALITY; PRESCHOOL CLASSROOMS SERVING AT-RISK PUPILS; PREKINDERGARTEN IMPROVE SCHOOL PREPARATION

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Bridget Hamre

Understanding the ways in which classrooms and teachers can contribute to positive outcomes for students.
Space Science Top: Gustavo Bruzual, bottom: Stéphane CharlotThe author(s) have sent in images corresponding to their work.EVOLUTIONARY POPULATION SYNTHESIS HIGH-Z GALAXIES; STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS; SUBSTELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

Fast Moving Front Comment by:
Gustavo Bruzual & Stéphane Charlot

Recent progress in stellar evolution theory and an observationally motivated prescription for thermally pulsing stars on the asymptotic giant branch.
2003-2009_3

             



Fast Moving Fronts : 2009 : November 2009 - Fast Moving Fronts