Featured Interviews> July 2010

Current Author Commentaries

In these interviews, scientists talk to ScienceWatch.com and offer behind-the-scenes insights into their research: reflections on what led them to their chosen field, the motivation driving their work in a given direction, and the challenges encountered along on the way. These authors also offer their views on why their work has wielded particular influence in the scientific community, as indicated by Clarivate Analytics citation data, and on how research in their respective fields has progressed over time and will likely unfold in the future.

Featured Interviews for July 2010

 
 

"Our paper "Randomized trial on protein vs. carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity," (Skov AR, et al., International Journal of Obesity 23[5]: 528-36, May 1999) was the first randomized trial to show that the stronger satiating power of protein leads to greater weight loss during ad libitum intake of a diet providing 25% of calories from protein (versus 12 % protein). The research is taking dramatic steps..."
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Jean-Philippe Avouac

"I graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique (France) in 1987, where I received a general education in science with a strong emphasis on mathematics, physics, mechanics, and chemistry. For my Ph.D. I chose to move to earth sciences, attracted by the possibility of combining outdoor activities and grounding my quite theoretical background to real earth problems. My Ph.D. project at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris..."
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Rajdeep Dasgupta

"Partial melting is the most important process by which the Earth's interior continues to chemically differentiate and releases deep volatiles to the exosphere. The key parameter that controls partial melting in the Earth's mantle is the location of the solidus of Earth's dominant mantle rock (peridotite) or the depth of first melting for the Earth's mantle. Before this study, the depth of first melting of the Earth's mantle was thought..."
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Louis Derry

"Since the Earth is a highly coupled system, changes in biogeochemical cycles feed back and impact climate, evolution, and so on, so developing a simple mathematical framework for understanding these complex interactions is also something that interests me. The challenge is to connect the observations to the computations in a useful way—it's too easy to let models of these systems get way ahead of the constraints...."
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Dario Grasso

"One year after the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which took place in June 2008, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration released the spectrum of the Cosmic Ray Electrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. Our work was one of the very first, and still one of the most comprehensive, attempts to interpret that extraordinary measurement. Several related observations came just before Fermi-LAT to warm up the interest in this subject. Most noticeably, the ATIC..."
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"This paper was a review of the state of knowledge about interactions between two important pathogens, influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It has been popular and highly cited because of two converging trends - expanding interest in influenza viruses due to the growing threat of a new influenza pandemic, and increased research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the great 1918 pandemic (the "Spanish flu"). The recognition..."
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Roland Nau

"Our in-vitro work with murine microglial cells shows that microglia are able to ingest and kill even encapsulated bacteria, and that both microglial functions can be stimulated by Toll-like receptor agonists. We hope that this work will end up with a therapeutic approach which helps to protect the brain from invading pathogens. We will work with immunocompromised mice in order to assess whether the resistance of the brain against infections can...."
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GASC’s Michael J. Thun Assesses Cancer Trends; Science Watch© Newsletter Interview

Michael J. Thun

"The recent trends are favorable for reasons that have at least as much to do with prevention as with improvements in treatment. In men, from 1991 to 2006, there was 20.8% decrease in the all-cancer death rate. In women, we had a 12.4% decrease. Forty percent of this decrease in men in reflects the decrease in the lung cancer death rate due to the decrease in smoking. Per-capita cigarette sales in the U.S. have decreased by almost..."
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Nagendra P. Shah

"Dairy foods are universally accepted and they provide a good environment for probiotics' growth. Most of these probiotics are classified as lactic-acid-producing bacteria as they produce lactic acid from lactose and are used to growing in dairy products, in particular yogurt. Yogurt is a very popular product for the incorporation of probiotics. Most of the probiotic-containing products consumers see on the shelves today are yogurts..."
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Takao Shimizu

"In addition to the well-known roles of lipids, they are also important as bioactive autacoids that regulate homeostasis, and lipid imbalances can cause bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and other diseases. Lipid mediators include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and short-chain fatty acids, among others. Each of these bioactive molecules is described individually..."
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Guifre Vidal Disentangles Quantum Entanglement; Special Topic of Quantum Computers

Guifre Vidal

"A long-term goal of my research has been to better understand quantum entanglement. Entanglement is a natural consequence of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics when applied to composite systems. It turns out that correlations between entangled quantum systems can be stronger than correlations between classical systems. I was first attracted to this fascinating subject in the context of quantum computing, where..."
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Citing URL: http://sciencewatch.com/inter/fea/feaintjul10/

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